The DIA Documents – USSR, April 1975
Defense Intelligence Agency Document: Soviet and Czechoslovakian Parapsychology Research – USSR, April 1975
During the past 25 years, Soviet and Czechoslovakian parapsychologists have reported that paranormal phenomena such as extrasensory perception (ESP), telepathy, and psychokinesis (PK) have been demonstrated under rigorously controlled laboratory conditions. Skeptics in both nations have attacked the study of such phenomena on both scientific and political ideological grounds. Criticism based on political ideology has stemmed from the fact that much past research has been non-materialistic in the sense that the results have not been reported in terms of contemporary conventional science. Thus the critics feel that parapsychology has fostered continued belief in mysticism, occultism, and religion.
In order to rebut the skeptics’ contentions that psychic phenomena do not fit accepted scientific and political thought. Soviet and Czech scientists now argue that there are many well established “facts” which remain as anomalous to scientific paradigms as extrasensory perception (ESP). ESP refers to information which is not received via the usual senses, and as a general term, includes telepathy (the Soviet “biocommunication”) and psychokinesis or PK (the Soviet “bioenergetics”). Communist parapsychologists argue that after decades of research, conventional science still has no satisfactory neurophysiological explanation of memory, nor is there any appropriate model for explaining how raw data impinging on man’s senses are transformed into a conscious experience. They also point to the dematerialized character of contemporary physics, a science filled with such bizarre components as advance potential (waves of electrons perceived before they are generated), tunneling effects (electrons penetrating barriers which, by the laws of probability, should be impenetrable), and tachyons (particles traveling faster than light, and thus implying the possibility of a backward flow of time). In short, they conclude that “hard” science no longer offers a secure rationale for the denial of the possibility of any noncausal event.
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EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION (ESP)
SECTION I – BACKGROUND
Parapsychology is a field involving research on the informational and energetic possibilities of the psychic and biophysical activity of living organisms. Parapsyhology investigates the complex of phenomena relating to the interaction of living organisms with each other and with the surrounding environment without the mediation of the known sense organs or of presently identified energy transfer mechanisms. Western parapsychologists term to this complex of phenomena as extrasensory perception (ESP) and psi phenomena.
The Soviets prefer the term biocommunications instead of parapsychology, psi phenomena, or ESP. Other Soviet terms which are equivalent to the term parapsychology include psychophysiology, psychotronics, psychoenergetics, and biophysical effects. The Soviet term biocommunications can be further subdivided into two general classifications: bioinformation and bioenergetics. Bioinformation includes paranormal events between living organisms (telepathy, precognition) and events between living organisms and the inanimate world. Bioenergetics denotes activities such as biological locator and indicator techniques (dowsing), bioenergetic therapy using electromagnetic fields, and psychokinesis, or the influence of bioenergy on matter. Definitions of the terms biocommunications, bioinformation, and bioenergetics are as follows:
BASIC TYPES OF BIOCOMMUNICATION PHENOMENA
A branch of science involved with the hewn capability of obtaining information from other than the normal senses and the ability to respond to or reasonably interpret such interaction. Biocommunications, also synonymous with parapsychology, is, however, distinct from other sciences in that it is primarily concerned with determining the nature of a definite group of natural phenomena controlled by laws which are not based on any presently known energetic influence.
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Type I: Bioinformation
Those phenomenon associated with the obtaining of information through means other than the normal sensory channels, e.g. – extrasensory perception (ESP). There are several forms of ESP, including:
a. Telepathy, transmission or reading of thoughts, refers to the extrasensory perception of information about the mental processes of others.
b. Proscopy or precognition is a form of ESP which, under certain circumstances, involves crossing the barrier of time to obtain information about future events.
c. Paragnosia or clairvoyance refers to the extrasensory perception of information about objective events in the outer world.
Type II: Bioenergetics
Bioenergetics involve phenomena associated with the production of objectively detachable effects through means other than known energetic influences. Seemingly incredible effects have been reported, such as the movement of distant objects without any detectable use of physical force (pyschokinesis or telekinesis), antigravitational effects, transformations of energy, electromagnetic effects without adequate physical cause, and chemical reactions and biological processes occurring through mental concentration.
A comparison of US and Soviet parapsychology terms is given in Figure 1.
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Fig. 1 Comparison of US and Soviet Parapsychology Terms (U)
PSI Phenomena Psychophysiology
= Equals Bioinformation
= Equals Bioinformation
In recent years, Czechoslovakian parapsychologists have begun using the term “psychotronics” in reference to all aspect of their paranormal phenomena research. They define psychotronics as the study of those borderline phenomena and signs of human existence that have a pyschosomatic base, but manifest themselves in such a way that they more or less exceed the framework of this base. Such phenomena include autosuggestion, hypnosis, telepathy, psychokinesis, and other paranormal effects and phenomena. The Czech term does not encompass the study of stigmata, levitation, etc., since these are considered hallucinatory states or processes and, as such, areas of investigation and treatment core appropriate psychology or psychiatry. 3 In general, however, the Czech science of psychotronics includes the study of all phenomena presently being investigated by Soviet and Western psychologists.
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Current Soviet and Czech parapsychology terms and objectives have evolved in a climate of fluctuating political pressure. Scientists in pre-revolutionary Russia studied parapsychology as did later such Soviet scientists as V. M. Bekhterev, A. C. Ivanov-Smolensky, and I. D. Kazhlusky in the twenties and thirties. 4 In 1924, A. V. Lunakharsky, Commissar for Education, took the initiative in forming a Soviet Committee for Psychical Research. As a result of Academician V. M. Bekhterev’s enthusiasm for the subject, extensive work was financed at the University of Leningrad Institute for Brain Research. L. L. Vasilev, a former student of Bekhterev’s demonstrated to his own satisfaction that telepathic influence at a distance may occur. Work flourished throughout the thirties with research being reported in the literature in 1934, 1936, and 1937. After 1937 further experiments in the field of parapsychology were forbidden. During Stalin’s time, the study of paranormal phenomena was interpreted as a deliberate attempt to undermine the doctrines of materialism.
Telepathy was treated as a mystical and antisocial superstition and nothing further was heard of parapsychology in the Soviet Union until the late 1950s. Then, as a result of French newspaper articles rumors began to circulate that American researchers disproved the “brain-radio” theory as a result of ship-to-shore experiments involving the US atomic submarine Nautilus. The Nautilus “experiments” probably were mythical, but the claims had one tangible consequences the Soviet authorities permitted Vasilev, then Professor of Physiology and holder of the Order of Lenin, to publish his own earlier work in which decades previously he had proven to his own satisfaction that radio-type brain waves did not mediate telepathy. Vasilev was also allowed to open a unit for the study of parapsychology at the Institute for Brain Research. His work first reached the West with an English translation of his monograph “Experiments in Mental Suggestion” in 1963. The result was instant international interest. Numerous Western researchers travelled to the Soviet Union and found a fair amount of activity and interest in the paranormal, although the research approaches were frequently different from those in the West. Soviet workers tended to be far more preoccupied with whole-body physical and biological effects rather than the “mental” phenomena with which Western researchers had long been preoccupied.
Some of the first parapsychologists to visit in Soviet Union after the publication of Vasilev’s work described the differences in the atmosphere pervading two conferences in 1963 and 1968. During the first, free and cordial exchange of news was possible; the second was overshadowed by an article in Pravda attacking parapsychology which largely wrecked the formal plans for the program. Most of the Soviets declined to speak, Western visitors were pressed to deliver impromptu lectures, and the House of Friendship in Moscow withdrew its invitation to hold further meeting and allow films to be shown there. From this time onwards, with certain
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fluctuations, official hostility towards parapsychology increased in the Soviet Union. For example, Soviet authorities took the strongest possible exception to a best-seller in the West, Ostrander and Schroeder’s “Psychic Discoveries behind the Iron Curtain”. 5 Edward K. Nancov, then Director of the Institute of Technical Parapsychology, Moscow, 6 was cited throughout as the journalists’ guide and mentor. Unfortunately, the Voice of America beamed a radio program into the Soviet Union discussing the Schroeder and Ostrander book, a broadcast that was construed as a politically motivated attack using parapsychology as a weapon. Apart from this episode, it is not entirely clear officialdom should have taken such fierce exception to a frankly popular, sensational, and rather chaotic book, which was not taken seriously by many Western scientists. The most plausible interpretation seems that the Soviets were worried that they might be believed by the world’s scientific community to be self-proclaimed champions and leaders of parapsychology. In fact, Soviet scientists are just as divided among themselves roncerning parapsychology as scientists elsewhere and since 1972, a number of openly critical publications concerning parapsychology research have appeared in the Soviet Union. A few examples of such open attacks follow.
In 1972, V. M. Bleykher (a reputable Soviet nureophysiologist) published a book titled “Parapsychology – Science or Superstition.” In an annotation to this book made, (in fact, as the lead paragraph, Bleykher stated “this book is designed”, etc) to debunk parapsychology. 7 The book began with such arcane and archaic as phrenology (headnote reading) and ended with a chapter prefaced by a cartoon showing a broom sweeping the Russian word “Parapsychology” out of the picture. The entire bias of the book was to make a direct link between 19th century “spiritualism” and 20th century parapsychology.
In 1973, Kazake Pranskaya Pravda carried an article by Doctor of Swedish, V. Fudachin, titled “Careful: Parasedicine!” In his article, Fudachin openly attacked “unproven telepathic transmission of information over distances from one person to another on the basis of their neuropyschic states,” and criticized parapsychologists “for claiming to obtain results that are completely unrelated to the cause-and-effect principle.”
In October 1973, a long and detailed paper titled “Parapsychology: Fiction or Reality?” was published in Questions of Philosophy an official publication of the Soviet Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, the four eminent members of the Moscow Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, V. P. Zinchenke, A. N. Leontiev, B. F. Losov, and A. R. Lurz. They explicitly set out “to express the viewpoint of the USSR Society of Psychologists
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toward parapsychology.” “Obviously,” they wrote, “some so-called parapsychological phenomena do happen’ however, the main obstacle to the acceptance of their existence is ignorance of the basis of their operation.” It is not clear iron this paper just which parapsychological phenomena “obviously do happen; the only ones which the authors unambiguously supported as authentic were Kirlian photography (radiation field photography by means of which the biological energy fields of plants and animals may be visualized) and “dermal-optical vision” (the alleged ability to see colors through opaque shielding through touch alone). Paradoxically, Kirlian photography is probably based on known iones of energy, while dermal-optical vision has no known basis in fact. A large portion of the paper was in fact devoted to a denunciation of “militant parapsychologists,” popular credulity, fraudulent practices, physicists who quite unnecessarily change their jobs to investigate paranormal phenomena, sensationalistic journalists, and insitutions such as Insitution for Technical Parapsychology (which was cited by name). Apparently, the objective of the paper was to discredit as myth any idea of a “parapsychological movement” in the Soviet Union and to insure that the science of parapsychology should not continue to emerge. To quote the authors, “there is no need for parapsychology to exist as a separate discipline.”
There is additional evidence that the official attitude towards parapsychology in the Soviet Union may have changed. In the 1960s, Moscow parapsychologist Edward K. Naumov was recognized internationally as the Soviet sportsman for the science. In March of 1974, Naumov was arrested and sentenced to two years hard labor. In January of 1975, parapsychologist Larissa Vilerskaya, who had previously been permitted to visit Naumov in jail, was herself arrested. The reason for her arrest was not known, but Naumov was apparently convicted of taking fees for his lectures without the permission of the appropriate authorities. According to reports from Soviet Union, the fees seem to have been collected in a general way by the club’s director and his assistand – however, both were subsequently declared psychologically unfit to testify, certified schizophrenic, and referred for some unspecified form of involuntary treatment at the Serbskiy Institute of Forensic Psychological Expertise. This Institute’s director, Dr. Andrej Snezhnevsky himself gave evidence to the effect that parapsychology was a pseudoscience based on idealism and mysticism. Although 40 witnesses said they had bought their tickets from the club’s director or his representative, Naumov was found guilty and sentenced for two years in a camp. According to Lev Kepelson, a Moscow physicist, Naumov’s offense was twofold: first, despite reiterated warnings from KCS he had “maintained free, personal, human contacts with foreign scholars. . .” and made use of the materials he received
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for disseminating information on parapsychology in USSR. Naumov’s second fault is ideological. Up to most recent times parapsychology has been looked in the Soviet Union as “mysticisim” and “pseudoscience,” sharing the fate of the theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, cybernetics, genetics, etc.
Naumov’s trial and the dismissal from their posts of others who had been active in parapsychology in the Soviet Union in 1960’s may mark the end of a phase during which free and indeed spirited discussion of parapsychological topics was permitted throughout the Soviet Union, and during which a fair amount of informal and unofficial East-West contact was at least tolerated. 8
Despite the apparent shifts in the official attitude toward the science, 48 out of 91 papers presented in 1973 at the First International Conference of Psychotronic Research in Prague, Czechoslovakia, were authored by Soviet or ECC researchers. In addition, the Moscow publication “Zhurmalist,” published a lengthy editorial 9 in 1974in which readers were assured that “all energy fields existing in nature are not known to contemporary physics” and “that because various phenomena cannot as yet be explained does not mean that they do not exist.” The name of the science may be changed in the future, but the research will continue.
During the past decade parapsychology has undergone many changes in the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia. In a sense, this is a question of changing generations. The elder generation of researchers, who actively investigated the problems of parapsychotronics, regarded it predominantly as philosophy and psychology. To a certain extent, this concept determined their approach to the problems. In most cases they concluded that very complex psychic processes were involved, processes that were difficult to control and hence were not always reproducible. This elder generation of researchers had as their primary objective the proof of psychic processes and the defense of their theories. They confined themselves to their own specifics and problems. In terms of the quantity of accumulated facts and performed experiments their work was considerable and often awe-inspiring.
Researchers of the younger generation in the USSR and Czechoslovakia are beginning to regard this concept as one-sided, a straitjacket. They are not satisfied with the constant proving and description of the phenomena. They also want to model, amplify, formulated and compute. A desire to conclusively master the problems has compelled them to abandon the previous concept and to define parapsychology for the time being, as a borderline interdisciplinary science. To the unipolar philosophical-psychological concept there is now added another pole, the technical-physical concept. Between these two poles there is sufficient room for parapsychology to comprehend all the phenomena that it investigates, in their complexity.
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Present-day Soviet parapsychologists are from practically all scientific disciplines, not as individual enthusiasts but as members of coordinated interdisciplinary teams of specialists. In 1967, the Czechs established the Coordination Group of Psychotronic (parapsychological) Research. They intentionally put as one of their principal objectives the description of the undetermined properties of the energy bound to man and animate nature. They appear to be convinced, for example, that de Broglie’s dual concept, in which the electron may appear as a means of intertia or as electromagnetic radiation, requires a third aspect (the vehicle of which would not necessarily be de Broglie’s electron but possibly the mental ion or “mention” presupposived by Professor F. Kahuda), and that only then will it be possible to completely express the animate and inanimate world of matter in motion. By defining the parameters of the undefined form of energy the concept of matter in motion could gain a third aspect, and matter in motion would be defined by laws far more complex and comprehensive than at present. It is interesting to note the increasing validity of Professor L. L. Vastlov’s statement that “undiscovery of the laws of the as yet unknown form of energy bound to man will be of no less significance than the discovery of atomic energy.” Therefore it is no coincidence that theoretical physicists and plasta physicists is the Federal Republic of Germany believe that understanding of the psychical-physical interactions of living organisms will add something basically new to physics and bilogy. The Czechs believe that as soon as science begin to understand the proportion of this new form of energy, questions of its mastery and utilization will rise to the forefront. Robert Pavlita’s work, which is discussed in detail in Part II, is no small contribution in this direction. Whereas in the past parapsychology operated predominantly by the method of exceptional individual performance, psychotronics presupposes a new model; the living organism (man) – processing of energy – performance.
In 1982, a century will have elapsed since the foundation in England of the first Society of Psychical Research. Zdemek Rejdak, internationaaly renowned parapsychologist of the Czechoslovak Scientific and Technical Society. Section for Psychotronic Research has stated, “we are convinced that psychotronics will mark this centennial with significant results in practical, applied, and basic research, in the knowledge that it will become an essential new anthropological science, one that will enhance primarily man’s integrity.”
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SECTION II – TELEPATHY (ENERGY TRANSFER) IN ANIMALS
Soviet and Czechoslovakian parapyschologists have not reported “telepathy” in animals in recent years; instead, they have recognized research on biological energy transfer. Soviet parapsychology research in multidisciplinary and indistinguishable from conventional Soviet physiological research. Both disciplines are presently involved in attempts to identify the sources of internally generated and externally imposed stimuli underlying physiological processes.
Soviet research on telepathy in animals in the 1920’s and 1930’s was devoted largely to proving that telepathy between man and animals did indeed exist. A good example of the early Soviet approach was research conducted by V. M. Bekhterev of Leningrad University, in collaboration with a circus performer, V. L. Duraw. Bekhterev reported that Durov’s trained dogs successfully solved arithmetic problems and identified or retrieved objects solely on the basis of their trainer’s mental suggestion. 10 The results of these tests were controversial, since the dogs’ performance were good when Durov was present and supplied the “suggestions,” but deteriorated markedly when he was absent and another individual attempted to mentally control them.
Bekhterev’s original objective was to demonstrate the telepathy between man and animals was mediated by some form of electromagnetic radiation (EMR), but by 1937, he and other Soviet parapsychologists had concluded that no known form of EMR was the carrier of thought transmission. The EMR theory of information transfer is still unresolved by the Soviets, but is still the major basis underlying such of their research.
IN 1962 B. S. Kazhinskiv advanced the theory that animals are capable of the visual and aural perception and reflex understanding of the behavior of the other animals or humans. He postulated that this ability resulted from the capacity of one animal to detect (via its nervous system), analyse, and synthesize signal-stimuli were transmitted in the form of a “bioradational sight ray” and analysed by the percipient animal as a result of its Pavlovian conditioning. The term “bioradational rays” is still used by some Soviet and Czech parapyschologists to refer to focusing and concentration of biological energy by the brain and the optical neural channels.
Present day Soviet and Czech parapsychology research with animals is devoted almost exclusively to investigation of source of biological energy with external fields, and the effects of externally generated fields on animal physiology. Reference to telepathy in the sense of communication by transmission of total, conceptual, mental formulations is seldom made.
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A significant advance toward identification of the EMR source of biological energy transfer from research conducted at the University of Kovosibirsk. Scientists there investigated the release of energy during cell division and during cellular damage and repair resulting from viral infection or toxic chemicals. In over 5000 experiments with cell cultures and animal organs it was shown that damaged cells radiated some form of energy and that the energy released was capable of causing damage in adjacent control preparations of organs or cells. Further investigation revealed that a uniform pattern, code, or rhythm of radiation was emitted by normal cells. This pattern was disturbed when cellular damaged occurred, becoming quite irregular. It was also found that the patterns were transmitted from experimental to control preparations only when the cells or organs were cultured in quartz containers. Since quartz transmits ultraviolet (UV) radiation and standard laboratory lassware does not, the Soviets concluded that UV radiation mediated cellular information transfer. The researcher subsequently correlated given irregularities of emission with specific diseases and are now attempting to develop techniques for diagnosis and therapy by monitoring and altering cellular radiation codes. 6
Czechoslovakian research on energy transfer between animal muscle preparations, from animals to man, and from man to man, has also demonstrated EMR as the vehicle of biological energy transfer. In experience conducted between 1948 and 1968 at the Obres Institute of Public Health. Kutna Nora, Czechoslovakia, Dr. Jiri Bradna demonstrated contactless transfer (myotransfer) or stimuli between from neuromuscular preparations. Bradna placed identical preparations side by side; between 10 and 30 pulses per second caused contraction and a recorded electrocyographic response in the other. In other experiments, stimulation of muscles preparations influenced the oscillations of a pendulus and increased the muscle tension of a human subject. Bradna obtained objective proof that energy in the very high frequency (vhf) range mediated the stimulus transmission. He also demonstrated that myotransfer could be blocked with ferrous metal filters and aluminum, would be deformed with magnets, ferrites and other conductors, could be reflected and transmitted over waveguides, and shielded with grids. Bradna concluded that primary perceptual and informational pathways between animals are based on metabolic processes at the macromolecular level and that the magnitude of energy transfer depends on muscular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) energy release. 12
Bradna has reported successful application of myotransfer in physiotherapy. It has been found to be effective for both individuals and groups. In the latter case, the sensation of stimuli has been shown to enhance the neuromuscular responses of individual within the group. Bradna feels that such stimuli influence the hard behavior of animals and may also be a factor in altering human behavior conditions of isolation or overcrowding.
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In the Soviet Union, Doctor Y. A. Kholodov has investigated the effects of a constant magnetic field (CMF) on rabbits. 13 Whole-body exposures to fields between 30 to 2000 ocrateds resulted in nonspecific changes in the electronecphilogram, but no other directly measurable physiological responses. Kholodov showed that weak magnetic as well as other externally generated radiation fields h a direct effect on nerve tissue, and for this reason he feels that natural and artificial fields in man’s environment may have an influence on health and behavior via the nervous system and the hypothalamus. Kholodov’s research is representative of current Soviet efforts to explain paranormal phenomena on the basis of known physical and biological parameter.
Another Soviet scientist, A. S. Presman, feels that biological energy and information exchange between living organisms is the result of electromagnetic field (EMF) interations between individuals or between the individual and the environment. 14 He and other Soviet scientists have recorded EMF’s from man, frogs, and insects of various species at ranges from several centimeters to several meters from the body surface. The frequencies of the EMF’s were found to correspond to various biorhythms of organs, rhythms of movement and acoustic signals, and bioelectric rhythms. Presman thinks that in groups of animals, electromagnetic oscillations are synchronized by frequency matching and that the cumulative intensity may grow in proportion to the square of the number of individuals. Such cumulative emission is also thought to be possible as the result of synchronization of the emissions of many cells in animals in a highly excited state.
Presman like Kholodov, feels that the effects of subthreshold stimuli are mediated through the hypothalamic region of the oldbrain. The hypothalamus regulates diverse physiological processes in the organism (pulse, body temperature, oxygen consumtion, carbon dioxide liberation, urine volume, urine nitrogen concentration, etc.) and thise are the functions most commonly disturbed by changes in EMF’s.
Presman believes that electromagnetic signalling is universal between animals, but not between humans who may have lost the capability for such communication as a result of evolution and the development of verbal and artificial communication channels. He does not rule out the possibility that “spontaneous telepathy” may occasionally occur, but regards such occurrences as rate case of atavism. Consequently, he regards man as the least suitable animal for studying electromagnetic customization.
It is important that the increased degree of sophistication which has occurred in Soviet ESP or telepathy research since 1960s be understood. At present the terms “ESP” and “telepathy” are seldom used. It is possible that the newer terms “biocommunication” and “psychotronics” will vanish in the near future only to be replaced by conventional high-energy physics
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terminology, or terms such as “inrerpersonal subconscious reactions” or “mention” forces. In any event, the classical ESP experiments with animals are no longer of interest in the USSR. The typical Vasilev experimentation from 1920 to 1955 has been replaced with sophisticated research protocols which study complex interactions between man, animals, and plants.
Dr. Pavel Naumov, who hears no relation to the now imprisoned Edward Naumov, conducted animal biocommunication studies between submerged Soviet Kavy submarine and a shore research station; these tests involved a mother rabbit and her newborn litter and occurred around 1956, three years prior to the U. S.S. Nautilus disclosure. According to Naumov, Soviet scientists placed the baby rabbit aboard the submarine. They kept the mother rabbit in a laboratory on shore where they implanted electrodes (EEC?) in her brain. When the submarine was submerged, assistants killed the rabbits one by one. At each precise moment of death, the mother rabbit’s brain produced detectable and recordable reactions. As late as 1970 the precise protocol and results of this test described by Naumov were believed to be classified. Many examples can be found in Soviet literature dealing with dogs, bears, birds, insects, and fish in conjunction with basic pyschotronic research. The Pavlov Institute in Moscow may have been involved in animal telepathy until 1970.
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SECTION III – TELEPATHY (ENERGY TRANSFER) IN MAN
PART A – Classical Theories and Experiments
Over the past 25 years, Soviet scientists have reported the abilities such as extrasensory perception, clairvoyance, and telepathy have been demonstrated in the laboratory under rigorously controlled conditions. Many of these claims have been published in the Soviet technical and popular literature. Just how far the Soviets have really done in their efforts to learn about the mechanisms of human telepathy is not known. If the Soviet reports are even partly true, and if mind-to-mind thought transference can be used for such applications as interplanetary communication or the guiding of interplanetary spacecraft, the Soviets have accomplished a scientific breakthrough of tremendous significance.
For many years, any attempt to study telepathic phenomena was denounced in the Soviet Union as mysticism or idealism. From 1922 to 1059, however, this attitude gradually changed. Official recognition of parapsychology as a legitimate science was prompted to a considerable extent by the Party’s recognition of other disciplines which has previously been rejected as bourgeois idealism (quantum mechanics, the theory of relativity, and cybernetics). In 1959, Professor L. L. Vasilev published his “Mysterious Phenomena of the Human Psyche,” followed in 1962 by his “Experiments in Mental Suggestion.” These two publications caused more surprise among Western scientists, but the possible military implications were apparently overlooked in the West. The first attempt to illustrate the possible military and intelligence impact of Soviet research in telepathy and psychokinesis was published in 1972. 15
The publication of Vasilev’s first book in 1959 was followed by the appearance of countless studies by other Soviet researchers and numerous articles in the Soviet periodical press. Soviet parapsychology research gained impetus and sophistication, growing from a single laboratory into a coordinated USSR-wide effort; laboratories were also established in Czechoslovakia. Funds for research (reported at 20 million rubies in 1973) are believed to be primarily from military sources. This high level of support advanced Soviet research on human telepathy far beyond that of the West and the USSR became the leader in sponsoring and participating international parapsychology symposiums. Such international meetings have served Soviet interests by allowing them to benefit from Western research.
After 1959 large numbers of Soviet scientists began investigating telepathic communication. In 1965, a bioinformation department was formed
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at the Moscow section of the Scientific-Technical Society of Radio Engineering and Telecommunications invent A. S. Popov, with the purpose of furthering scientific research on information transmission “in the living part of nature.” The early Soviet objectives which were made public were: (1) to study and organize relevant materials from the world literature; (2) to record and systematize observed occurrences of “spontaneous” telepathy; and (3) to develop and organize experiments on artificially initiated telepathic occurrences.
At a meeting of the Bionics Department of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1965, I. M. Rogan raised the following three questions: (1) is telepathy possible in principle; (2) does it contradict natural laws; and finally, (3) do the observed facts agree with the concept of electromagnetic fields? 16 To answer thses questions, the following the hypotheses have been advanced in the USSR:
(1) The electromagnetic hypothesis (1892), advance as a result of the discovery of the discovery of electromagnetic waves in 1888. By the mid 1960s this hypothesis had been subjected to considerable criticism. The entire range of the electromagnetic spectrum from gamma rays to radio waves had been studied; throughout this range there was not a single sector in which telepathic communication could be established. Experiments with reliable forms of metallic shielding had not prevented the percipient from receiving messages transmitted to him (also verified in the West). Moreover, the effectiveness of “signals” transmitted over hundreds of thousands of kilometres should, according to the theory, diminish in proportion to the square of the distance; this has never been established in relevant experimentation. The electromagnetic hypothesis has not been rejected and clear evidence indicates that there may be electromagnetic waves of some unknown length emitted by the brain which are capable of penetrating metallic obstacles.
(2) The metaethereal hypothesis, borrowed from French parapsychology.This presupposes the existence of some unknown aethaethereal energy, the oscillations of which can be detected only by special organs of “crypto-aesthetic sensitivity,” possessed by person endowed with parapsychic abilities.
The psychic energy hypothesis. According to this theory, bioelectrical charges in the “working” brain of the inductor are transformed into psychic energy which is transformed back again into bioelectric charges in the “Receiving” brain of the percipient.
gravitational field and some existing but unexplained factor, possibly produced by the cerebral matter itself, might be involved in telepathic communication. He also suggested that thought transmissions that can be connected with the laws of cybernetic systems. Vasilev also referref to the action of the neutrino particles formed during nuclear reactions. 17 If it could be established that such particles (which have no electric charge, move with a speed approaching that of light and are capable of penetrating obstacles of enormous case) are generated during the neuropyschic activity of the brain, it might conceivably be shown that these particles serve as the medium for telepathic transmissions.
The Soviet’s renewed interest in the problem of parapsychology during the 1960s constituted, to a certain extent, another aspect of the trend away from doctrinal control which had previously dominated all areas of intellectual effort in the USSR. The easing of intellectual control was exemplified by a quote from Laplace’s “Essai Philosophique aur ies Probabilities” used by Professor Vasilev:
“We are so far from knowing all the forces of nature and their various modes of action that it would be unworthy of the philosopher to deny phenomena simply because they are inexplicable at the present state of our knowledge. The more difficult it is to acknowledge their existence, the greater the care with which we must study these phenomena.” 18
Vasilev himself said:
“It has happened more than once in the history of science that the establishment of new facts that were unexplainable by what was already known gave us a glimpse of unforeseen aspect of the existence.”
Such was the climate of Soviet parapsychological research in the early 1970s; Soviet science, for all its characteristic pragmatism, had apparently begun to free itself gradually from the restraints of an outworn materialistic foundation which on more than one occasion had shown its flimsy bases when focused with new discoveries. However, as noted in Section 1, there may now once again be fairly concerted effort on the part of some highly placed Soviet scientists in other disciplines to undermine parapsychology on political-ideological grounds.
In 1966, F. Zigel, a renowned Soviet astronomer, concluded that telepathy is the science of the future. In order for it to become a service to mankind, research in telepathy must be organized on a state-wide basis. Otherwise, after a short while, “reproaching ourselves for past mistakes, we again would have to catch up with foreign countries. If the insulting remarks addressed to scientists engaged in telepathic
studies were made privately they could simple be ignored. Such criticisms, however, are aired publicly in the press by people of incontestable authority in other fields. What happened to genetics and cybernetics is now being repeated again and again. One can no longer remain silent, he must take the full responsibility of stating that “criticism” of telepathy is tantamount to militant obscurantism. 19 Zigel’s words did not go upheede because by 1968 the Soviets already had: (1) established several research centers specializing in telepathic experiments on an academic and scientific level; (2) organized teams of scientists – physiologists, physicists, psychologists, mathematicians, cyberneticians, neurologists, and electronic engineers – to investigate telepathy, find out how it works, and devise means of practical transference (Leningrad-Moscow (600 km): Moscow-Tocsk (4, 000 km)).
Without actually taking an unequivocal stand on the controversial issue of telepathy, Ye, Parnow, 20 in 1966, cited at least three paradoxes: (!0 telepathic communication is independent of distance: (2) telepathic communication is achieved without the use of the known senses and has no apparent relation to electromagnetic waves; (3) some cases of spontaneous telepathy and clairvoyance contradict the law of causality. It should be mentioned that if Parnov had stated his third pardons, a few years sooner, it would have meant certain scientific and intellectual exile. However, Parnov attempted to ascertain the extent to which these paradoxes might fit into the fundamental laws of natural science, and thereby remained somewhat within the bounds of traditional dogmatic, materialistic principles.
Parnov felt that the first paradox might be resolved if (a) the material carrier of the telepathic effect is some type of energy unlikely to dissipate in space, or (b) all people are linked together by a special “telepathic field.” In the first case, the material carrier could conceivably be the neutrino which, at least within the earth’s biosphere, is not absorbed by matter. In the second case, it might be surmised that, in addition to the inductor and percipient, telepathic phenomena involve an unspecified number of people for amplification of the telepathic signal, just as a photomultiplier amplifies light.
A similar explanation was applied to the second paradox; the neutrino phypothesis,: howver, has its drawbacks. It is not quite clear, for instance, which type of neutrino is responsible for the transmission of telepathic signals. It is possible that all people are interlinked by a neutrino field, and this would support the amplification theory.
The third paradox is the least palatable to traditional scientists and the cost susceptible to criticism by opponents of telepathy. Its explanation requires, by implication, the breakdown of well-established concepts regarding time and space. One of the ideas advance by some
theoreticians is that of “closed time” in which such notions as past and future become relative beyond the theory of relativity. By accepting such an idea, it must be assumed as a matter of fact that the human brain can somehow “locate” the future by means of the neutrino. Parnov observe that other theoreticians had hypothesized that the neutrino’s peculiar behavior is due to the fact that this particle moves from the future into the past rather than the other way around. Such a concept would do justice expressed before theoreticians began extensive discussion on tachyons (particles said to have a velocity greater than that of light). Mental ions (“mentions”), having similar velocities of propagation, have also been postulated. They are discussed further in Part B of this section.
Another theory which could help explain the third paradox is based on the law of conservation of combined parity, advance by L. D. Landau. According to that law, symmetry is preserved in any system whenever the “left” is substituted by the “right” and a particle by an antiparticle. It then appears that all relationships are invariant with respect to time inversion. Thus, Parnov concluded, the third paradox may contradict the letter, but not the spirit of modern physics.
I.M. Rogan, referred to earlier, was the first to publish experimental results in human telepathic communication in the post-Vasilev era. 16, 21, 22 Only the qualitative and quantitative results will be presented here; the interested reader can peruse the above reference for Rogan’s research protocol. Rogan arranged his experiments in four group (excluding experiments involving the use of hypnosis which can be found in an excellent article by Velinov); 23 the four groups included: (1) mental suggestion of an act involving objects at short distances; (2) mental suggestions of the image of an object and selection of a given object at short distances; (3) mental suggestion of object images over long distances: and (4) mental transmission of object images over long distances. None of the experiments reported by Rogan were inconsistent with the Soviet electromagnetic hypothesis. An analysis of the results revealed certain qualitative and quantitative characteristics common to all experiments. They were: (1) the rate of telepathic information transmission varied between 0.005 and 0.1 bit/see.; (2) the rate of information transmission depended upon the distance the information had to travel, ranging from 0.1 bit/see for a distance of several meters to 0.001 bit/see for a distance of 4, 000 km; (3) in telecommunications, the percipient did not take the significance of the logical concept at the type of object being transmitted’ normally, only qualitative images eliciting some kind of sensation (shape, color, hardness) were perceived; and (4) the best perception of telepathic information occurred when the messages were short (up to one minute). Transmission of simple, brief, need combinations of the elements (images, emotion) appeared to be the proper way of handling coded telepathic information.
Sometimes, Soviet experiments in human telepathic communication followed Rogan’s work. rapid Soviet advances in electronics, cybernetics, tionics, and neurophysiology brought new techniques to the study of telepathic phenomena. By 1970 the prime objective of Soviet telepathic research was reproducibility of results and Soviet scientists now say that in the future they will be ble to make ample use of telepathic resources and to develop, direct, and control telepathic processes as well. 24
PART B – Current Soviet/Czech Theories and Research Objectives
The most obvious trend of current Soviet and Czech telepathy research is that it is now casually oriented rather than directed toward proper attempts to apply observed but littlw-understood phenomena. The previous “cart-before-the-horse” approach was not, however, an illegal one, since it led them to theorize that telepathic effects may be based on subtle, unidentified forms of energy or non-energy interactions.
In 1973, Peter Rezek of Prague stated that telepathy may be conceived of as transfer realized by means of some known or unknown type of energy, or is made possible by some non-energy factor that accompanies the functioning of the brain. Rezek questions G.A. Sernoyev’s dedication to the interpretation of the electroencephalograms (EEG) and wave concurrences to uncover the carrier of transfer and feels that Sergoyev’s approach is and not towards an understanding of them. He questions attempts to regulate or control psychic phenomena before their underlying causes are understood. 25 according to Reszek, ESP research and research in sense perception are similar since scientists in both fields are investigating the composition and structure of the apparatus by which transfer takes place. Perception, as such, in the natural science approach, which is unable to explain perception as such were applied to ESP. this ESP, this phenomena as such will again be incomprehensible. Rezek concludes that when ordinary sense perception becomes comprehensible, it may open the way to understanding of telepathy. On the other hand, ESP could become the basis for an understanding of perception in general.
(u) The trend towards the theoretical development of models for cybernetic systems incorporating psychotronic phenomena has been augmented by a pyschotronic model of man proposed by Joseph Wolf of Pargue. As an integral part of the psychosomatic picture of human existence, a psychotronic model of man is an entirely unique contribution to the study of the concept of man. From an anthropological viewpoint as well as from broader aspect that cover the comprehensive investigation of human sciences, such a model is needed within the framewoek of other human sciences, particularly anthroplology and psychology. A psychotronic nudei of man based on present knowledge of psychology, anthropology, and the medical sciences, not only offers at entirely new concept of man as we individual and as a species of living beings, but also permits new approaches to the solution of human psychomatic disturbances and defects.
The experimental pyschotronic model of man, which Wolf present in rather simplified and schematic form (see Figure 2) may serve this purpose. The concept of this model is universal, i.e., it applies not only to man (regardless of sex, age, etc.) but to any living being as well, whether terrestrial or extraterrestrial.
Recently the most important source of new questions concerning man has risen from the need to humanise the technical sciences, where man is often subordinated to the operation of machinery and to the technocratic apparatus, rather than the other way around. Specifically, where the human factor in completely relegated to the background and where human activity remains only on the fringe of human existence, human shortcomings, defects and failures are the most frequent; technological dehumanization may have affected not only individuals but entire groups, and perhaps even all of the society. Wolf thinks that the primitive peoples – i.e., the ethnic groups of aborigines who still live at the lowest cultural and economic level in the world, and who belong to so-called primitive, preliterate and preclass societies – might be one of the most rewarding sources for studying psychic phenomena and for modelling the psychotronic profile of man, since they have not been culturally dehumanized by technology. 29
Czech investigator M. Cemousek of Prague 30 suggests that primitive levels exist in all human minds and that there is a regressive nature to telepathic phenomena, by regression no means some “prmitivization” or behavior, a return to older psychic functions on the ontogenetic plane. This behavior change is characterized by an abandonment of and withdrawal from, the rational components of the human psyche – a complete detachment from reality or icon the perceiving environment. The end effect of this detachment from reality is a spontaneous sinking into a state that can be characterized as one of primary, primordial empathy. Although Cemousek describes the parameters for obtaining certain levels of regression in modern man, his theory does not encompass any of the concepts of biological energy transfer. Instead, he appears to accept the theory that the human brain is analogous to a highly sophisticated data bank in which all of life’s experiences and impressions, consciously perceived or subliminally registered, are stored. Cermousek’s idea of telepathic communication involves a high level of empathy between individuals; when such empathy exists, he feels that information transfer occurs as a result of nearly instantaneous and simultaneous processing of similar stored information bits by both sender and receiver. The net result is a coincidence of opinion concerning the telepathic message’s content.
Camousek’s theory is based in a great deal of research. The Soviet and Czech literature on psychology, creativity, and evolution of human existence is extensive. A huge volume of data has been compiled on the brain’s memory capacity. The Czechs claim that 1973 experiments employing LSD have lead them to the conclusion that all of man’s activities and experiences, whether perceived intensively or less intensively, are stored. They are now investigating the quantity of information the brain can process per unit of time, its bit capacity, and how this becomes manifest at the level of the conscious and the unconscious. The objective of this research is to make the process of cognition more economical. Czech scientists have learned the neuron to an integrated modular element that contains a register, a capacitor, and perhaps as many as 1000 times seven
billion, or seven trillion semiconductor elements in operation, and another seven trillion in reserve. The brain has about 14 billion nerve cells. If only 10 billion are able to receive information at any one time, and the transmission capacity of a never fiber is 14 bite per second, then this means that the brain is able to receive 140 billion bits of information per second. Thus the memory capacity of the brain seem to be a million time greater than that of current computers. For ordinary perception and deliberation, 14 to 16 bits/second are adequate. But for more complicated perception and deliberation, such as the solution of a mathematical problem, etc., about 20 bits per second are needed. The brain’s great reserve bit capacity may indirect that unconsciously and subliminally, man may be perceiving far more information than what has been assumed previously. Experiments with known telegnostics seem to confirm this, since they apparently process and evaluate a huge quantity of information within an unimaginably short time.
Czech theoretical cyberneticians are proposing the construction of computers that will “create” and possess at least a degree of intuiton. However, the Czechs admit that this concept is somewhat premature, because they do not yet understand these processes in man and are unable to describe them adequately. Parapsychology may eventually provide such essential knowledge about those processes and thereby help cybernetics in solving the problem of teaching computers to create. The point is nor mainly to build more-perfect computers, but to design computers with qualitatively new functions. Work is now underway on a fourth generation of computer, and a fifth generation is being planned. The Czechs believe that parapsychology is already capable of offering cybernetics fruitful models. 31 In the opinion of some cyberneticians, 32 the present prostheses that replace missing parts of the body are foreign bodies within the organism, regardless of how perfect they may be. Once the technology of molecular circuits is mastered it will be possible to integrate perfectly a prostheses and the central nervous system’s information system. From there it will be only a short step to direct man-machine communication. Understanding of molecular circuits will also clarify the mechanisms of extrasensory communication between people.
The Soviet-Czech term approach to parapsychology research, not widely used as yet in the West, will advance them into direct non-machine communication, creative computers, and eventually into cyborgs, i.e., human inductors coupled with physical psychotronic instrumentation.
Frantisek Kahuda of Charles University, Prahue, has expanded on the original “neutrino” theory proposed in 1960 by Naumov of the Soviet Union. Kahuda and other Czech researchers have demonstrated that space (mental horizon) and time (mental time) in the world of mental processes have characteristic properties that should be in accord with the properties
of the particles that are the material vehicles od such processes. These are particles that in man’s internal relativistic mental process may have a velocity v = c (c equals the velocity of light in vacuum) without violating in the external physical world Eintein’s postulate that the maximum feasible velocity is v < c- Such particles, essential to mental processes, have not been discovered to date. Kahuda calls them mental tons or “mentions.”
For physical microparticles other than luxons, which have a velocity v + c (photons and neutrinos), Olexa-Myron Bilanfuk and F.C. George Sudarshan introduced in 1969 the concept of tardyons for subliminal particles traveling at velocities v and c, and the concept of tachyons for physical superliminal particles traveling at velocities v > c. the actual existence of tachyons with an imaginary rest mass, has not been proven so far. Thus, the predicted tachyons and luxons correspond to Kahuda’s mentions traveling at velocities v = c. however, the essential difference between tachyons and the Czech mentions is that tachyons are supposed to be particles of the physical microworld and lease also of inanimate nature, whereas mentions are particles formed by living organisms, specifically by their nervous systems, that represent matter on the highest level of organization, with the most complex and finest structure. Moreover, Kabuda’s theory does not require the introduction of imaginary rest mass as in the case of tachyons; it predicts the real existence of mentions, based on fairly accurate laboratory measurements of the physical time and mental time of the investigated mental material motions.
In agreement with the laws of the electron’s quantum field theory, Kahuda assumes that an entire conglomerate of elementary mention fields, specific to the individual mentions, forms through interaction and transmutation, a single common mention field in which the mental material motions take place – a sort of metaetheric environment that is linked to man’s living organism and exists in nature independently of the will of all human beings. During the mental process of thinking one mental particle “changes” into another, however Kahuda does not designate any particle as primary and another particle as secondary. These constant changes and mutual transmutations reflect the psychic world’s material homogeneity. The basic of this homogeneity is the notion of mentions as universal material particles of the human psyche. From the theory based on the principle of quantum mentiodynamics Kahuda has proposed the following formula for total mention energy:
where Ep (B) is the potential (psychic) energy of the investigated respondent. From this equation it follows that the rest mass of the mention, at the moment when the mental process hearts (i.e., when the respondent units the first mention), and when numerically Ep (B) = E, is expressed by the relationship:
Where is the rest-time factor of man’s mental abilities. Thus, the mental structure (nervous system) of each respondent forms and emits its own mentions whose rest mass, according to experimental results to date, is approximately 106 to 198 times smaller than the rest mass of the unison, which is The smallest values of total mention energy that were measured indirectly at the moment when the mental process began ranged from 0.384. 10-10 to 9.744.10-10 erg, which is approximately the same level as the energy of X-rays; the quotient of this energy range’s relative asplitude is roughly 25. Kahuda assumes that after the commencement of the mental process, in the course of its formation, the velocities of the mentions’ material motions may increase severalfold, so that the total mention energy according to equation 1 may be considerable, even though the average respondent’s stimulation of the human eye (2.1 . 10-10 erg/sec). For high velocities Kahuda thinks that it will now be possible to actually develop quantum mentiodynamics as the quantum theory of mention fields.
Mention energy, which may be the essence of the propagating changes and energetic information in the mental processes, is an as-yet unknown form of energy in human beings. It occurs in quanta that cannot be measured the quantitative values of potential energy (Ep(B)) indirectly.
Kahuda’s results indicate that electromagnetic processes alone cannot be the vehicles of psychic processes, and that within the framework of the entire complex metal structure there must also exist another carrier of mental processes, one that permits the propagation of psychic reactions and interactions at velocities greater than the velocity of light in vacuum. In Kahuda’s opinion, it is indisputable that mentions do exist, but he points out that the discovery and experimental verification of mentions will require a thorough theoretical knowledge of their possible characteristics and the most sophisticated and most accurate measuring equipment that science will be able to develop. 33
SECTION IV – TELEPATHIC BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
Part A – Basic Research
Behavior modification through telepathic means is in itself applied research. The changes or alteration of human activity desired can be either beneficial or detrimental to the percipient. Soviet research in the field of behavior codification by telepathy dating from the early 1920s through the early 1970s has had one major objective – application of techniques. In telepathy research, unlike research in most scientific disciplines, then applies phase preceded the basic phase. To put it simply this is why telepathy is still called a phenomenon, both in the USSR and the West. The phenomenon of telepathy has many applications, one of which is behavior modification. Basic research therefore applies to the phenomenon itself; this is covered in Part I Section II (Psychotronic Generator Research).
Part B – Applied Research
Between 1920 and 1943, L. L. Vasilev conducted numerous experiments involving telepathic mental suggestion; his first work involved the mental suggestion of motor (musle) movements. This early work was based in part on the published results of similar experiments conducted by Dr. Jiore 34 of Lille, France. Vasilev’s human test subjects were asked to perform various muscular movements through the medium of telepathy. For comparative purposes some tests were made with hypnotized percipients, while others were placed only in a relaxed state. During the same time frame (120-1943), Vasilev also conducted experiments involving the mental suggestion of visual images and sensations with and without hypnosis. Vasilev’s results indicated that it was altogether possible to telepathically suggest and produce voluntary, controllable motor acts as well as influence involuntary, uncontrollable movement. He noted that some of the best subjects for the suggestion of motor acts were suitable for mental suggestion of visual images and vice versa. Apparently there was no visible positive correlation between these two variant of telepathic susceptibility. Some of the subjects under hypnosis responded more readily to verbal suggestion of a sensory nature while others were more responsive to verbal suggestion of the motor type. This observed variance applied for both mental and verb suggestive techniques. After a thorough series of experiments. Vasilev concluded that mental suggestion involving hypnosis would provide the most fruitful results. 35
According to Ostrander and Schroeder, 5 the ability in telepathically produced sleep-wake states (obliteration of one’s consciousness) from a distance of a few meters to over a thousand kilometers became the most
thoroughly tested and perfected Soviet contribution to international parapsychology. Parapsychologists in Leningrad and Moscow demonstrated the telepathic manipulation of consciousness and correlated it with systematic EEC recordings. The Naumov-Sergeyev-Pavlova team found that EEC recordings changed dramatically when the telepathic impulse contained a message affecting human emotions. Transmission of several successive emotions of a negative character elicited the appearance of cross-excitation of the brain. It changed the spontaneous EEC character to the tired state of the brain, dominated by slow, hypersynchronized waves of the delta and theta type. Percipients of unpleasant emotions followed by positive emotions (feelings of calmness or cheerfulness) regained normalized EEC’s within one to three minutes. Other Soviet tests included sending to the percipient the anxiety associated with soffucation and the summation of a dizzying blow to the head. Pavlova, Sergeyev, and Naumov uncovered impressive data on the power of white blood cells rose by fifteen hundred after they suggested positive emotion to patients. More important was the observation that after impressing negative emotion, the white cell count decreased by sixteen hundred. Since Leucocytes are one of the body’s main defense mechanism against disease, such a telepathically imposed shift in cell count could be used in altering human health. In similar research the Czechs found that intense mental activity in the sender caused, at a distance, a slight change in blood volume in a resting percipient. Measurements were made with plethysmograph. Experiments in the West have verified this phenomenon. Soviet and Czech research on manipulative telepathic techniques has also included experimental transmission of kinetic impulses, sound, and taste.
Outside of the Soviet and Czech research on the manipulative possibilities of PK and psychotronic generators, the emphasis on manipulation by means of telepathy still involves the use of hypnotism. Many Soviet and Czech scientists are using this technique as a means to try to identify the “carrier” of telepathy but others may be conducting such research for more devious reasons.
Dr. Stefan Masezarski of Poland predicted that the field of telepathy will open new avenues for spreading propaganda. He feels that the electromagnetic theory is valid and believes, therefore, that telepathy can be amplified like radio waves. Telepathy would then become a subtle new modus for the “influencers” of the world. Some Western followers of psychic phenomena research are concerned, for example, with the detrimental effects of subliminal perception techniques being targeted against US or allied personnel in nuclear missile silos. The subliminal message could be “carried” by television signals or by telepathic means,
The potential applications of focusing mental influence on an enemy through hypnotic telepathy have surely occurred to the Soviets. The bulk of recent telepathy research in the USSR has been concerned with the transmission of emotional or behavioural impulses and the study of physiological responses to PK exercises, etc. In their exploration of telepathy, they are seeking the eventual capability to reproduce and to amplify the phenomena so that control is feasible. Control and manipulation of human consciousness must be considered a primary goal.
Psychokinesis (PK), or as it is sometimes called, telekinesis, is the ability to influence animate or inanimate objects at a distance, without physical contact, by means of uncontrolled or controlled biological energy field. Some, but not all, of the effects of PK include: initiation or cessation of motion in inanimate objects; apparent neutralization of the effect of gravity on inanimate objects (levitation); induction of changes in physiological processes of animate matter; the creation of measurable electric, electromagnetic, electrostatic, magnetic, or gravitational field around target objects; and the imposition of images on shielded photographic emulsions.
Current Soviet and Czechoslovakian parapsychological research emphasis is on identification and quantification of the generated bioenergetics force fields, identification of the physiological processes underlying their origin, and development of practical application of PK energy.
There are fundamental differences between the Soviet and Czech approaches to PK research. Since paranormal research was granted political responsibility in the Soviet Union. In the 1950’s, Soviet scientists have concentrated their investigation on a relatively few, highly “gifted”, psychic individuals, and have attempted to determine what (if any) physiological attributes underlie their capabilities and differ from those of non-psychic subjects. Parallel with those efforts to determine cause (s), the Soviets have concentrated considerable effort on determination of the nature of the energy field formed and to attempts to determine whether all psychokinetically gifted subjects created the same, or different, energy fields.
Czechoslovakian research is also cause-and-effect oriented, but appears to be governed far more by the belief that PK effects can be produced by a majority of people and that no inherent or highly developed psychic capability is prerequisite to the investigation and demonstration of PK effects.
Soviet research has taken several different directions in efforts to develop materialistic explanations for observed PK effects. This research has involved in-depth studies of the characteristics of the electrical field between subject and object, characterization of electrical fields immediately around the subject, study of subjects’ brain waves patterns, and photography of the subjects’ bioenergy fields. To date, Soviet scientists ate by no means in accord concerning the nature of the forces involved, but all are in agreement that a physical energy is at work. 37
Dr. Viktor G. Adamenko of the Moscow Institute of Radiophysics,
Dr. Viktor Inyushin, of the Kazakh University, Alma-ata, and Dr. Genady Sergeyev of the A.A. Uktomiaskil Physiological Insitute, Leningrad are the leading Soviet theoreticians studying PK. Both Inyushin and Sergeyev have developed theories based on the existence of a new form of energy – a form of biological energy referred to as “bioplasma”. They consider PK effects as analogous to lightning accidentally charging a surface and feel the movement in PK occurs as a result of the interaction of the object’s electrostatic charge and electromagnetic field with the human operator’s field. The biological energy involved in under conscious direction by the subject, who can make a target object start or stop motion, change direction, or rotate. Sergeyov has developed instrumentation which measure changes in the bioplasmic field at distances up to 3 meters (9.9 feet); he has recorded field of 10, 000 volts/centimetre in the vicinity of a target object with no indication of an electrical field in the space between the subject and the object. According to Sergeyev, bioplasmic energy is maximally concentrated in the head region. He attributes PK to a polarization of the bioplasms in a laser-like fashion and refers to this as a “biolaser effect” which acts as a material force upon the object. 37
Dr. Sergeyev has developed detectors that monitor energy field during PK demonstrations. Although Western observers have been denied information on the construction of the detectors, (information reported to have been classified by the Soviet military), details may have been published by the Soviet Academy of Science. It is possible that the Sergeyev detectors ate similar to those developed by an American, David Thomson. Thomson’s devices, which have been used in human force field research at the University of Saskatchevan. Canada, consist of two capacitor plates, a preamplifier, and a line recorder like that of an encephalograph. Other Soviet force field detector research has been done at the Laboratory for Biological Cybernetics in the University of Leningrad Physiology Department. There, according to Soviet reports, Dr. Pavel Gulyalev developed extremely intensive electrodes capable of detecting the electrical force fields of nerves at distances up to 24
centimeters (9.46 inches), for more detailed information on Soviet biological energy detectors, the reader is referred to reference (3), pages 393-396.
Dr. Adamenko had conducted experiments to ascertain the role of electrostatic charges on the surface of target objects as the cause of their movement. Adamenko has advance the theory that man may be anisotropic – i.e., man may be able to alter his external energy state in accordance with his internal energy state, and this ability in turn, may depend on his physiological processes. According to Adamenko, humans, animals, and plants probably possess electric fields as a result of spontaneous tissue polarization, and such fields may interest with externally imposed or induced charges. He proposes that the observed properties of living tissue come closest to the properties of electrets. 38 Electrets are defined as “forcibly” polarized bodies having comparatively high conductivity and the ability to maintain an external electrical field after exposure to adverse factors of either the external or internal environment. Adamenko has shown that the material basis of contactless interaction between man and objects results from an electrostatic field whose magnitude depends on man’s physiological state varies in both the character ad magnitude of the bioelectret effect. They have formed the hypothesis that the polarization of living tissue is the explanation for contactless intereactions between humans and between humans and objects.
Adamenko has also advanced the concept that, in the thermodynamic sense, living tissue may not be subject to the name physical laws that are valoid for inorganic matter. He argues that living tissues may possess “new” properties (in terms of thermodynamics) when compared with inorganic matter. He believed that if living molecules differ qualitatively from inorganic molecules, then a distinction may exist between “living” and “technical” force fields. To demonstrate his point, Adamenko makes reference to healing by “the laying on of hands” (in Western terms “faith healing”) The Soviet have measured electrical fields between “healers” and patients, yet knowing these field potentials they have not been able to duplicate the beneficial efforts obtained from humans by means of technically generated fields.
Aleksander Dubrov, a biophysicist with the Institute of Earth Physics. USSR Academy of Sciences, has advanced the concept of “biogravitation” to explain PK. Biogravitation, as a term, was introduced by Soviet physicist V.S. Bumin in 1960, and was used to refer to the ability of living organisms to from and detect gravitational waves. Dubrav bases his theory on currently accepted concepts of molecular biology and high-energy physics.
In molecular biology, the capacity of intracellular molecules to alter their spatial structure is recognized. Biomolecules are capable of making the transiton from a “liquid” to an orderly crystalline state. Dubrov defines this change as “molecular conformational change”; like present day high energy physicists, he believes that as a result of this change, the molecules are brought so close to each other that tremendous forces of attraction or gravitation emerge: when this occurs, a constant conformational field having a “quasigravitational” nature is formed. In Dubrov’s opinion, this means that a vector, or a force field, is formed at the subcellular level which is capable of attracting or repelling naturally occuring gravitational forces, or of itself emitting minute gravitational waves. 4
Dubrov feels that psychic subjects may, in some manner, have the ability to synchronize their subcellular molecular conformational changes and thus generate attractive or gravitational fields of sufficient strength to alter electromagnetic or natural gravitational forces acting on a target object. Dubrov, like some other Soviet and Western parapsychologists, thinks that changes in the space-time continuum may be the basis for observed PK phenomena – i.e., time may be accelerated or decelerated by the psychic subject.
In 1973 and 1974, a Soviet psychic named Boris Ermolayev participated in a series of experiment at Moscow University. Ermolayev is reported to have the ability to levitate (suspend) objects in midair by concentrating psychic energy at a focal point in space. In some of the tests, Ermolayev pressed an object between his hands, than slowly moved his hands apart until they were approximately eight inches from the object, which remained suspended in the air. Soviet scientists claim that all tests were conducted under the strictest controls and that no strings or other devices of any kind were used. Dubrov feels that Ermolayev’s levitation powers can be used to prove that space-time and gravitational changes occur in the area between the psychic’s hands and the object. He suggests that they transmission of electromagnetic energy of known velocity should be delayed when beamed through the levitation field.
Two female psychic subjects, Nina Kulagina and Alla Vinogradova, have been studies extensively by Dra. Sergoyev and Adamenko. According to Sergeyev, Mrs. Kulagina can control the beat of frog heart preparations, imprint images on shielded photographic emulsions, and move objects weighing one pound or more. In 1079, Dr. Sergeyev conducted experiments in which Mrs. Kulagina was asked to influence, if possible, a living frog heart preparation; such preparations normally continue to beat for several hours after removal from the animal’s body. In one experiment, the heave was placed in a glass jar 2b feet from Mrs. Kulagina. As she
concentrated on controlling its beat, electrocardiograms showed that the rate of contraction increased or decreased at her commend. Five minutes after the experiment began, she stopped its beat entirely. When a second preparation was placed in the jar its beat was stopped in 20 minutes.
In other experiments, Mrs. Kulagina imprinted images on unexposed film sealed in black envelopes. During these experiments Sergeyev measured the energy around the psychic’s body and found it to be half that of a non-psychic individual. This led Sergeyev to believe that she absorbs, or draws, energy from around her and then discharges it on the target object.
Mrs. Kulagina experiences considerable stress while she is being tested. Her pulse increases, as does her rate of breathing; she develops pain in her upper spine and the back of her neck. At the onset of her “activated” state she feels thirsty and has a taste of iron or copper in her mouth. During the activated state. She experiences occasional periods of dizziness and nausea. Her blood sugar level rises and within one hour following cessation of tests, a loss of weight (1.5 – 2.0 lbs.) occurs. She experiences less stress when alone, and claims to respond best in an atmosphere of friendly mutual trust and belief. Her PK ability is mood dependent (her mood and the mood of the observers) and she expends more energy in a hostile or skeptical atmosphere.
The mechanical aspects of Mrs. Kulagina’s PK effects are as follows:
Size and shape are more important than the physical structure of the substance she is trying to influence.
Weight and dimensions of objects she is trying to move are important; the weights vary from a few ounces to nearly one pound.
She finds moving a vertical cylinder easier than move a horizontal one.
He causes no changes in the shape of soft objects during movement.
The direction an object moves depends on her will, and may be either towards or away from her. She can also cause rotational or vertical movements to occur.
Kulagina’s optimum field effect occurs at approximately 15 feet her distance limit in approximately 3 feet and 4 inches, when the object to be influenced is 3 feet from the edge of the working surface. At these distances, she is made to be able to move one object out of many
Depending upon where she center her concentration
The electrical aspects of Kulagina’s effects are as follows:
An electrical field is generated in the vicinity of the object she is attempting to influence; however, there is no measurable field between Kulagina and that object ad no sparks are observed.
She can exert no effect on an object situated in a vacuum.
Electrostatic screening has no effect on her powers, which seems to be better with the object under a dielectric cover, but she is unsuccessful during storms or other atmospheric conditions when there is a greater normal amount of electricity in the air. She cannot, at any time, exert an influence on an electroscope.
She can cause luminescence of crystal lumiphors and produce changes in the spectrum of visible light absorbed by liquid crystals.
Dr. Adamenko has found that Alla Vinograndov produces effects similar to those of Sina Kulagina, but undergoes tar less physiological stress. In some of his experiments with her in Moscow, during which she moved a variety of objects about on a dielectric surface, a great deal of electrostatic (ES) energy was reassured around the objects (supposedly enough to light a small neon glow tube). The measurements detected field pulsations which were synchronous with Vinogradova’s respiration rate, heartbeat, and brain alpha rhythm pattern; however, the region between Vinogradova and the object contained no energy fields nor frequencies, and the ES energy increase in intensity as the objects were approached.
The results with Alla Vingogradova have led Adamenko to believe that there may be individuals who have the ability to build up an ES field on the body surface at will and project it as required. 38
The Czechs, like the Soviets, are attempting to identify the source, or sources, fo biological energy, but their research of not centered on psychically gifted individuals. Instead, some leading Czech parapsychologists have developed the theory that most people possess psychic capabilities and that such capabilities may best be demonstrated as observable oriented, probably as a result of Reobert Pevlita’s development of psychotronic generators (described in Part II of this study). The Czechs believe that the use of those services for biological energy collection and concentration may make it possible for nearly some to cause PK effects.
Although the design and construction of the generators may be quite complex, they are simply to operate and require only minimal training in their operation. They gave two other major advantages, they required no supervision of the subject by an investigator and the observable physical effects (motion, attraction, etc.) serve as positive, encouraging feedback for the subject.
One of Pavlita’s devices for demonstrating PK is shown in Figure 8. The usual way of charging the device with psychic energy is to touch the temple area of the head with the hand, then touch the device. The accumulated energy then causes the spoked wheel to revolve. Pavlita claim that with training some individuals can learn to make the wheel turn by visual concentration alone.
Czech physicist Julius Krmessky 41 has experimented with very light foil or paper discs or cylinders enclosed in circular containers; the effect of biological energy on them is generally a slow, but observable, rotation. They have no directly practical applications, but Krmessky feels that they are ideal research tools. Since they are simple, inexpensive, and require no special training or psychic talent for their operation. A device similar to Krmessky is shown in Figure 9. The cylinder is made to rotate by placing the hands above or alongside the device while concentrating ones gaze on the upper strip, or cross-bar. Krmessky recommends isolation of the system from motion of air and the effect of heat radiation by enclosing it in glass, metal, or other container with provision for inspection through a glass cover. Motions in such enclosed spaces are slow and hence not too spectacular, but nevertheless convincing. The slow rate of motion or the occasional immobility cannot be explained by the walls being impenetrable to outside even through a thick layer of lumber, metal, water, etc. The cause lies somewhere else. The reaction of rotational systems in free and enclosed space is highly variable and changes with place and time. Krmessky believes that changes of meteorological or even a cosmic mature may be the cause. Similar cases occur with physics experiments, where even the most carefully prepared electrostatic demonstration may not be successful if a change I weather raises the relative humidity or cause alterations in atmospheric ionization. Magnetic experiments are disrupted by the proximity of magnets, electric wiring and appliances, and also by the aurora umbrella, sunspot activity, or other cosmic causes. The causes of disturbances in PK experiments have yet to be explained. Krmessky feels that no quantitative observations could be seen in the privacy of homes, where diverse effects accumulate and overlap. Such effects are various radiations, changes in the conditions of illustration (in the intensity of diffused daylight, for example).
and also the presence and changing positions of objects and persons, perhaps even in the next room or next apartment. Rotational systems enclosed in cylindrical containers are the most suitable for experiments. Angular enclosure are unsuitable for this purpose, since the motions observed in them are too slow and unconvincing. The best devices consist of rods or tubes suspended horizontally by a monofilament thread, foils in the shape of narrow rectangles rotating about their minor axis, or circular planes rotating about their diameter. The angular velocities of the rotational systems are sometimes very noticeable, but more often they are comparable to the velocity of a watch’s minute hand. However, such systems are able to exclude other physical causes that could influence rotational motion. Placement in a steel container can form a magnetic shield. A glass jar or cylinder can be packed in a grounded Faraday cage of woven wire, or the space between the walls of two containers, one placed in the other, can be filled with water to shield against electrostatic energy. Despite such measures, the indicators react to changes in radiation from heat and light sources. They react especially sharply to direct sunlight, but they also detect changes in diffused daylight or the narrow beam of a flashlight, even from a considerable distance. Under stable conditions of heat and light, the indicators remain steady in some equilibrium of position. A convincing example of this is the fact that when an indicator is permanently located, it settles in the same equilibrium position every night and remains in it until morning. After sunrise, even on a cloudy day, it occupies a new position and maintains it until it is subjected to a further impulse, for example, to a sudden clearing of the sky, to the presence of a person, to a change in the positions of nearby objects, etc. From such observations, Krmessky assumes that successful telekinetic experiments are very demanding in terms of their physical conditions. Such experiments cannot be performed at just any time and place. There are cases when the indicator’s plane occasionally rotates without any intervention by the experimenter and without any perceptible cause. If such a case occurs under constant conditions of light and heat, and if its cause cannot be determined in the immediate environment, then Krmessky feels that the effect of distance sources of radiation, perhaps even of cosmic origin, may be the energetic force. The opposite of this seemingly spontaneous notion has also been observed; the rotational system will remain practically immobile, the indicator will not be affected much by either a gaze or the proximity of the hand, and a very slows displacement of only a few degrees is all that can be induced. Thus, a suitable time and place must be chosen for the experiment so that the condition may be as favourable as possible.
Krmessky found that the indicators reacted not only to the bearness of a human body, but also to a slightly lesser extent to other animated and inanimate objects. They also reacted to the bearness of plants, vegetables, fruits, flowers, etc., and to subjects made of a variety of materials (metal, glass, etc.) so long as the surface areas were sufficiently large. When the dimensions of the objects were small, their activity was increased by roughing their surface, thus essentially increasing the surface area. Porous or spicy objects, such as sponges or sea urchins were especially suitable for experiments of this type. To insure that the temperature of these objects was the same as that of the movable oysters, they were placed near the indicators for a sufficient length of time to allow foe temperature equilibration. Only then were experiments performed, and the positive results obtained completely eliminated heat radiation as the source of energy.
Krmassky has found that although the hands and other parts of the body are effective in inducing rotational motion, a gaze produces motion of great magnitude, probably because it condenses the biological energy into a fairly concentrated beam, whereas impulsion from the body surface are scattered. The “visual rays” were shown to exert effect even when reflected or when focused through binoculars.
In Krmessky experiments with inanimate objects and plants, man’s role was of very brief duration and consisted only of placing the objects or plants near the device. In future experiments, Krmessky plans to position such objects by purely mechanical means. He feels that if positive results are still obtained, he will have demonstrated that interactions between objects and objects and humans and objects differ. At the present stage of his research, he supported his hypothesis as follows: the indicator distinguished the effect of objects from the effects of man in the following manner; after an object has been placed near the indicator, the plane rotates from its original equilibrium position and remains in it or gradually returns to the original position. When man affects the indicator, the final position of the indicator’s plane depends on man’s will, unless fatigue, that is an accompanying phenomenon of psychic exertion, sets in.
Krmessky believes that he is observing an energy field which is quite similar to magnetism, but a magnetism with some finer structure and a very unstable, fluid field. The poles of this magnetic field may be formed by very easily movable plasma particles that represent elementary magnets which, under the influence of external factors, are never in a completely chaotic state, but rather in a very state of partial ordering. Probably the occasionally observed line
oscillations of the indicator’s planes at the beginning of the rotation are actually the collective effect of the process of aligning the particles. Krmessky has yet to explain why, under seemingly identical conditions and in response to apparently identical stimuli, the rotational indicators of his devices are on one occasion attracted, and on another, repelled. Such erratic responses seem to indicate a double magnetic layer in which the poles are located side by side; this is not feasible if the poles are similar to electric charges. The indicators react as if there are positive, negative, and neutral foci alternately distributed in a relatively small plane. The materials from which the devices are built are such that they should not react to the inductive effect of the earth’s magnetic field.
Krmessky has advance the theory that the hypothetical poles in all objects on the earth’s surface are induced by light, or by radiation in general. This “quasimagnetic field,” then, could be a resultant phenomenon induced by interaction of plasma and radiation, without having to assume an analogy to the earth’s magnetic field. He also accepts the hypothesis that in man’s brain the processes of thinking are accompanied by the motion or plasma particles, and that this notion is the source of excitation or, more aptly, the modulator in this hypothetical field of very fine structure, able to transmit much more subtle impulses than the well-known electromagnetic field. Certain phenomena – the reflection of visual rays by polished surfaces, refraction, the effect of light on the polarity of objects, electromagnetic field may eventually be found.
All of the Soviet and Czech research on PK is significant, especially that associated with the spectacular Soviet psychics Kulagina, Vinogradova and Ermolayev. Kulagina’s highy publicized ability to affect living tissues might be applied against human targets; in like manner, Vinogradova’s power to move objects, and Ermolayev’s levitational ability could possibly be used to activate or deactivate power supplies or to steal military documents or hardware. Robert Pavlita’s generators and Julius Krmessky’s PK indicators could be (and possibly are now) used to train large numbers of lesser known Soviet and Czech citiczens to develop, enhance, and control their latent psychic abilities. Such as cadre of trained, but anonymous individuals could be used for any number of convert activities. Less spectacular, but more significant, is the fact that Soviet and Czech scientists are pursuing an interrelated, unified approach to determining the energy sources and interactions underlying PK and appear to be far ahead of their Western counterparts in reaching this goal. It will be but a short step from understanding to application and there is little doubt that many applications can be directed towards man for whatever purpose, be it good or bad.
Section 1 – REMOTE VIEWING
Remote viewing refers to the ability of some individuals to project themselves mentally to remote or inaccessible locations and observe and report on details of terrain, structures, and other salient features. This ability is also referred to as astral or mental projection. It differs from telepathy in that the percipient does not give together information bits to form an image, but rather, has a vivid sense of leaving his body and personally observing the target area.
Remote viewing has been investigated in the US at Starford Research Institute (SRI), Meio Park, California. Psychically gifted subjects were tested with the ability by presenting them with map coordinates randomly selecting on a double blind basis. The subjects were required to respond immediately with a description of the target area and were tested both with and without feedback as to their accuracy. According to the SRI report on this study, there were at least some categories of information in which the results exceeded any possible statistical bounds of coincidental correlation and precluded acquisition of data by known means.
(c) SRI reports of remote viewing research have not been publicized, but other SRI research on the psychic abilities of an Israeli (Geller) and a British subject has been vividly cited in the US news media. Geller has been quoted many times on his ability to transport himself mentally to any place of his choosing. Soviet parapsychologists are aware of Geller’s claims (he has, in fact, been invited to the Soviet Union for tests) and continuing US interest in this phenomenon, nevertheless, they reported very little similar research of their own.
1970, Ostrander and Schroeder 5 reported that the Soviets were studying out-of-the-body phenomena in Yogis; no details of the research were given. In 1972, the US newspaper National Enquirer 43 reported that the Soviets had accomplished astral projection in the laboratory and cited the opinion of a US researcher that the techniques would be in use for espionage before the end of the 1970’s; once again, no details of the Soviet work were furnished. With the exception of these two reports, no other information is available on Soviet out-of-the-body research and no reports indicative of any interest have become available since 1974.
The Soviet’s apparent lack of interest in out-of-the-body phenomena has led some US scientists to the conclusion that “they must be interested in it and investigating it,” however, there is insufficient information at present to support the conclusion that such phenomena represent a specific area of classified Soviet research.
SECTION II – THE APPORT TECHNIQUE
The apport technique is a form of astral projection in which the psychic subject transports his “energy body” to a remote site, dematerializes object, then transports it back and materializes it. In past reports, there has been some very general speculation on espionage applications of the technique but to date to definitive reports, US or foreign, have verified the claims of psychic reputed to have the ability. There have been no Soviet or European Communist Countries’’ report concerning research on apport techniques and if such research is being conducted it is well-kept secret. Lack of information on Soviet interest in the technique represents a major intelligence gap.
Soviet and Czechoslovakian researchers have accepted the reality of paranormal events and are primarily concerned with the formulation of a unified theory to describe the basic energy transformation involved. Soviet emphasis on the electrostatic and electromagnetic components the energy may play an important role in the final determination of the nature of psychical phenomena. This emphasis on energetics or intersection effects has lend to the concept that man must be investigated as a complete, integrated unit.
Soviet and Czech pyschotronic research will eventually be applied to human problems. As this occurs, the question will arise whether this knowledge and the equipment developed will be used for the enhancement of human freedom and social development, or for malicious purposes, if taken into the wrong hands. Psychotronics could conceivably play a role in contributing to the survival of the human species; by emphasizing the interconnections between all living beings.
Both Czech and US researchers have described Robert Psvlita’s work with psychotronic generators as possibly the most important contemporary development in the field of parapsychology and as a major contribution to the deeper understanding, mastery, and utilization of biological energy for human advantage.